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Duchy of Bavaria pre-1507
Electorate of Bavaria 1507-1806

Herzog- und Kurfürstentum Bayern (Germany)

Last modified: 2012-12-22 by pete loeser
Keywords: duchy of bavaria | herzogtum bayern | electorate of bavaria | kurfürstentum bayern | bayern-landshut | landshut | banner of arms | lozengy (white-blue) | quartered | lion: rampant (gold) | stripes: 9 | stripes: 7 |
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Introduction

Most of the [Bavarian historical flags'] information is from Drake-Brockman 1983.
Norman Martin, August 1998

An official flag for Bavaria was adopted only in 1878. The lozenged flag was the flag of Wittelsbach family and it was used since 1337. From ca.1506 the white standard with the arms began to be used. Later a great number of different standards were used... Before 1878 all the flags were unofficial, based on the Landesfarben white and blue, the latter should had been light after a royal decision of 1838.
Mario Fabretto, 3 August 1998

Bavaria (Bayern) was a Duchy until 1507, when it became an Electorate (Kurfürstentum Bayern). It became a kingdom in 1806 (Königreich Bayern), a republic in 1918 and a federal free state (Freistaat Bayern) shortly after that.
Santiago Dotor, 8 September 2000


Duchy of Bavaria 1340
Herzogtum Bayern

[Bavaria 1340 (Germany)]      [Bavaria 1340 (Germany)]
both by Jaume Ollé and Jorge Candeias

Square flag lozengy blue-white. Normally with 21 complete pieces (though sometimes with a total count of 21 pieces). Banner of arms of the Duchy of Bavaria.
Norman Martin, August 1998


Ducal Flag of Bavaria-Landshut 1500
Lower Bavaria/Bayern-Landshut

[Bavaria Landshut 1500 (Germany)] Image by Jaume Ollé

The flag of Bavaria-Landshut, also known as Lower Bavaria, had quartered: 1 and 4 Bavaria (blue and white lozenges); 2 and 3 Palatinate (a yellow lion crowned red on a black field).
Norman Martin, August 1998

The Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut (Teilherzogtum Bayern-Landshut) was first created after the death of the Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV "the Bavarian" in 1349. His empire was divided and his son Duke Stephen II eventually received the new Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut (Lower Bavaria).
Pete loeser, 17 December 2012


Ducal Flag of Bavaria-Munich 1500
Upper Bavaria/Bayern-München

[Bavaria Landshut 1500 (Germany)] Original image by Jaume Ollé (Quarters rotated by Pete Loeser)

The flag of Bavaria-Munich, also known as Upper Bavaria, had quartered: 1 and 4 Palatinate (blue and white lozenges); 2 and 3 Bavaria (a yellow lion crowned red on a black field). It was the opposite of the Lower Bavaria flag.
Norman Martin, August 1998

The Duchy of Bavaria-Munich (Teilherzogtum Bayern-München) was part of the Holy Roman Empire. The three sons of Stephen II, who had jointly ruled Bavaria-Landshut for 17 years after Stephen's death, divided it up into three parts in 1392. Duke John II received the portion called Bavaria-Munich (Upper Bavaria). This duchy would exist until 1505 when all of Bavaria was reunited under Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria.
Pete loeser, 17 December 2012


Electorate of Bavaria 1688
Kurfürstentum Bayern

[Bavaria Electoral 1688 (Germany)] Image by Jaume Ollé

A square white flag with crowned arms as in the Ducal Flag of Bavaria-Landshut 1500 with a red escutcheon containing an orb, rotated 315 degrees.
Norman Martin, August 1998

The image is according to the one in The Flag Bulletin [Drake-Brockman 1983]. Note that in the arms from c. 1700 the lions are with face to the left (in banner: the hoist) and the crown has many differences.
Jaume Ollé, 7 May 1998


Ducal Flag 17th-19th Centuries
Reported 1700 and 1820

[Bavaria 1700 and 1820 (Germany)] Image by Jaume Ollé

Five horizontal stripes: white-blue[-white-blue-white]. Used on ducal galley.
Norman Martin, August 1998


Ducal Flag - 17th-18th Centuries
Reported 1700

[Bavaria 1700 (Germany)] Image by Jaume Ollé

Seven horizontal stripes: white-blue[-white-blue-white-blue-white]. Used on ducal galley.
Norman Martin, August 1998


Ducal Flag 17th-19th Centuries, variant
Reported 1700 and 1886

[Bavaria 1700 and 1886 (Germany)] Image by Jaume Ollé and Jorge Candeias

Nine horizontal stripes: white-blue[-white-blue-white-blue-white-blue-white]. Used on ducal galley.
Norman Martin, August 1998


Standard of the Elector 1623-1805
Standarte des Kürfursts - reported 1860

[Standard of the Elector 1623-1805 (Bavaria, Germany)] Image by Jaume Ollé

Same as the flag of Bavaria-Landshut 1500 with an escutcheon of red containing an orb.
Norman Martin, August 1998

The banner reported in 1860 cannot be correct. The escutcheon with the orb was not used after 1804. It had to do with the Holy Roman Empire — the dukes [later electors] of Bavaria had the dignity of Reichserztruchsess or 'imperial archsteward'.
Theo van der Zalm, 16 June 2001

The gold orb on red is the symbol for the office which the Elector of Bavaria held. Prior to ca. 1630, when the office was held by the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the first and fourth quarters were the Palatinate and the second and third quarters Wittelsbach (Bavaria). The Bavarians probably reversed the order just to distinguish which branch of the family now held the elector's office.
James Weging, 5 October 2001


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