Last modified: 2012-05-03 by zoltán horváth
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image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 21 January 2012
The Provincial Municipality of Jaén (232,000 inhabitants in 2007; 5233
sq. km) is located in Cajamarca Department, northern Peru. The
municipality is made of the Districts of Jaén (the town proper),
Bellavista (2 January 1957), Chontali (28 December 1943), Colasay (3
May 1955), Huabal (4 January 1985), Pomahuaca (28 December 1943), Las
Pirias (4 January 1985), Pucará (2 February 1956), Sallique (3 May
1955), San Felipe (3 May 1955), San José de Alto (28 December 1943)and
Santa Rosa (28 December 1943).
Jaén's full name is Jaén de Bracamoros, for the name traditionally given to a local tribe (aka Pacamoros) from the Shuar family. The Bracamoros were fierce described by the chronicler Cieza de León and the historian Cabello de Balboa as fierce warriors the Incas could not submit by force. The Bracamoros were eventually submitted by Captain Pedro Vergara, who conquered an area that became the southernmost of the four Provinces (aka Governments) formed on the today's eastern part of Peru and Ecuador. The colonists founded settlements named for Castilian and Andalusian towns, for instance Jerez and Jaén. Captain Diego Palomino succeeded Vergara as the leader of the colonization in the area; in April 1549, he erected a cross on the bank of river Chinchipe, founding the settlement of Jaén de Bracamoros, then inhabited by 26 colonists. The location of Jaén was subsequently moved four times and eventually fixed in 1607 in the Tomependa Valley, north of the confluence of rivers Huancabamba and Marañón. Jaén was an important missionary center and the capital of a "corregimiento". Its main industry was a forge producing machetes and axes. In 1804-1805, Jaén was moved again, to the Amojú Valley. On 4 June 1821, Jaén proclaimed its independence from Spain and from the Royal Government of Quito, which yielded the award of "Cradle of Peruvianity / Heart of Peru" to the town. The representatives from Jaén joined the Peruvian Congress in 1822, in which the Trujillo Department was founded; in 1855, Jaén was transferred to the newly formed Cajamarca Department.
Source: http://www.munijaen.gob.pe/tu-ciudad/historia-de-jaen - Municipal website
Ivan Sache, 29 October 2011
The flag of Jaén was adopted in a public contest organized for the
175th anniversary of the municipal independence. Among 98 contenders,
the jury selected the design proposed by Ramón Donato Bautista
Guerrero, from Utcubamba (Amazonas).
The flag is vertically divided red-violet-green, with three rows of
four white stars each in the red stripe and a yellow sun in the green
stripe. Its description was published in the local cultural review
"Facetas", No. 43, 1997.
Red represents the force and victory on the local civilizations known as the fierce Bracamoros, the force and resistance of the native tribes of forest origin who resisted the Spanish conquistadores, the force, ardor and courage supplied in the ethnic wars. The twelve stars represent the twelve districts forming the Jaén Province. Red and white also recall the Peruvian national flag.
Violet represents the greatness of the local exemplary people, who bequeathed virtue and human exaltation to the present generation, the spiritual essence of the knowledge of its famous ancestors, the creative knowledge expressed in the beauty of the landscape.
Green represents faith and hope in a settlement rebuilt after devastation., faith and hope of the present generation to have its forces promoting a bright future, faith and hope of a settlement dedicated to its miraculous patron saint, the Crucified Lord of Humantanga, friendship, respect and commitment as characteristics of the genuine inhabitants of Jaén. The sun represents the mystic faith of the native peoples; its position on the flag reflects the north-eastern location of Jaén in Peru. Green and yellow also represent agriculture and cattle-breeding.
http://www.conociendojaen.com/blog/general3.html - Unofficial website
Ivan Sache, 29 October 2011
Description of flag: It is a red – violet –green vertical tricolour. In the
centre of the red stripe are 12 white 5-point stars ordered in three rows with
four stars each. Shifted to the top in the green stripe is a yellow radinat sun
with 12 rays.
Meaning: The red colour is symbolizing strength and victory of the native civilisations of the Inca Empire, especially the terrifying “Bracamoros” (~= flat nose blacks), their strength and resistence of their tribes against an advanced civilasation, i.e. thze Spanish conquerors, which intended to subdue them; also their boldness and courgae in ethnic wars. The 12 stars are symbolizing the 12 districts of the province.
The combination of red and white is a tribute to the tribes and their striving for independence against the Spanish Crown, the district of Quito (currently Ecuador) and the Vice-Kingdom of Nueva Granada, finally restitution and joining to Peru. They are also the colours of the Peruvian national flag The violet colour is symbolizing the splendour of the exemplary ancestors, which had been passed onto the nowadays generation, virtues and human ardour; furthermore the embodiment of the wisdom of their illustrious ancestors and the wisdom of the creator, which can be seen in the beauteousness of the landscapa. The green colour is symbolizing faith and hope of a people, who managed to arise again from the devastatations of the past; faith and hope of the current population, which is concentrating iall efforts to gain a prosperous future; faith and hope of the population being dvoted to the patron saint “Our Crucified Lord of Huamntanga”; finally green is symbolizing friendship, respect and readiness to help, the charateristica of the settlers in the region. The radiant yellow sun is representing the mystic religiousness of the native peoples. The combination of green and yellow is also symbolizing the agricultural activities of the region.
Source: Summary of a publication of Ramón Donato Bautisto Guerrero in the cultural review „Facetas“ No. 43 – 1997 in Jaen, presented in http://www.conociendojaen.com/blog/general3.html
(translated by Klaus-Michael Schneider)
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 21 January 2012
Ramón Donato Bautisto Guerrero, credited as the primary source, is indeed the
designer of the flag.
Ivan Sache, 22 January 2012
Please note, that on current images in the Jaen pages there are flags with a
sun having more than 12 rays. So the number of rays probably is not another
allision to the number of districts.
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 22 January 2012