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Puntland (Somalia)

Self-proclaimed unrecognized republic

Last modified: 2015-02-01 by bruce berry
Keywords: puntland | somalia |
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image by Jan-Patrick Fischer, 23 Dec 2009

See also:

Background

 

Puntland is a self-proclaimed state within Somalia. It was founded in Garowe, with a Charter signed by the leaders of Sool, Southern and Eastern Sanaag Regions and Buhoodle District. 
Dov Gutterman, 19 Feb 1999

Mini States in Puntland:

Ras-Aseyr state was established on April 17, 2011 and is dominated by the Siwaqroon clan in the Bari region of Puntland. It was founded in Bargaal, the capital of Bari region and its president is Mohamed Farah
Doxa-joog. This regional state has contacts with Maakhir, Mareeg, ASWJ, the TFG, and Khatumo, but almost has no contact with Puntland authorities. Ras-Aseyr claims they were forced to declare their own state, which lies within Puntland borders, after Puntland failed to develop their area and even neglected the needs of its people.  Puntland, furious over its formation, has battled with the group for control of Bargaal, an eastern coastal area of Puntland driven by the Siwaqroon sub clan of the Majerteen.

Karkaar state shares its name with the mountain rage which runs through it and is mainly the southern area of Bari region of Puntland.

Maakhir was established in June 2007 after a dispute with Puntland authorities over a range of issues, including mining and oil resources. The biggest cities in the Maakhir state are Las Qoray, Badhan, Hadaaftimo Hingalol and Erigavo. Maakhir state was established by the Warsengeli sub clan of Darood and is not recognized by the government of Puntland. Jibril Ali Salad is the president of Maakhir state and maintains a parliament and a cabinet of ministers.
Cai Zhenyuan, 16 July 2013


Flag of Puntland (2009 - )

On Tuesday, 22 December 2009, the Puntland Parliament adopted a new flag as the state's symbol. With more than 33 votes in favour, the Puntland Parliament has
showed that the state is ready to strengthen its political dimension as part of the Somali federation.

It is the first time the self declared state has adopted distinctive state symbols, since it's creation in 1998.

The Puntland constitution states that the regional administration should have it's own flag and anthem, as part of the Federal Republic of Somalia.  The flag and anthem of the state was selected by a commission of state officials and Puntland intellectuals.

The minister of Constitution and Federal Affairs of Puntland, Dr.Jima'ale, who chaired the commission presented the selected flag and state anthem to the parliament. Members of Parliament rejected the proposed anthem, but approved the flag and the state emblem.

The new flag consists of the three horizontal stripes in blue, white and green:

The blue stripe with the white star symbolize the Somali flag; of which Puntland is part.
The central white stripe symbolizes the peace and stability of the region.
The green stripe symbolizes the natural wealth of the Puntland State.
Jens Pattke, 23 Dec 2009

I'd just wanted you to know that as of 22 December 2009 the Puntland adopted a new flag and emblem to represent the State. This is along with the Somali Flag, which has not been replaced by the new flag but should fly beside the new Puntland flag as Puntland considers itself as part of Somalia and wants to join a future federal republic of Somalia.
Yasin Mursal, 11 Feb 2010

I have been able to obtain an English translation of the Puntland Constitution, as adopted 18 April 2012.  It was supplied by the Puntland Development Research Center.  It contains a description and explanation of colours and emblems of the flag and the coat of arms, as adopted 23 December 2009.

"Constitution of the Puntland State of Somalia
Title I – Founding Principles of Puntland
    Chapter One – Founding Principles
    Article 11: Flag, Emblem and Anthem of Puntland State

1. The flag of Puntland State shall be rectangular in shape and composed of three colours:
a) The top third portion of the rectangle shall be blue with a five-point white star in its centre, representing the Somali national flag.
b) The centre third portion of the rectangle shall be white, symbolizing peace in Puntland.
c) the bottom third portion of the rectangle shall be green, symbolizing the natural resources and abundance of Puntland.

2. The emblem of Puntland State shall be composed as follows:
a) a shield in the colours of the Puntland flag, with a dhiil (traditional milk storage container) in the centre white portion, symbolizing peace and milk. The top portion of the shield shall be gold-edged; and
b) There shall be a horse, standing on hind legs on a spear, at either edge of the shield, with two leaves in the centre and a gold-colored cloth hanging from the spear embossed with the name Puntland".

Despite the title of Article 11, the anthem is not described.
Jos Poels, 16 Feb 2014


Former flag Puntland (1998-2009)

 

image by Željko Heimer, 20 Jan 2003 

From http://www.puntlandnet.com (link is outdated),  this was what is said about the flag:

Article 3 The Flag, Emblem and Anthem of Puntland.

3.1 The flag, emblem and anthem of Puntland will provisionally remain those of the former Somalia Republic pending the adoption of the Puntland flag, emblem and anthem within 12 months of the approval of this Charter.

Dov Gutterman, 19 Feb 1999

I have seen a flag for Puntland which is different from the former state of Somalia from which it seceded in 1998. The flag is a horizontal tricolour of green - white - red. In the hoist side there is a blue triangle with a white star like the Somalia flag. The flag may also be the same as the Western Somalia Liberation Front. There is a detail of this flag on this website - at the bottom right hand corner of the page.
James Frankcom, 22 Apr 2003

If I don't remember wrong this flag was also published in the last issue of Francia Vexilla attributed to Puntland, but I believe that is a mistake; however the Ogadeni clan and the Majurtini clan may be related in any form (I don't know much of the complex inter-clan relations in the former Somalia and neighbouring Somali territories) and may have adopted the same flag.
Jaume Ollé, 23 Apr 2003

Both "Majurtini"and Ogadeni are clans of the Darod group (or clan...). The Darods are the main Somalian group (75% of all Somali people, the others being Digil-Rahanweins, Hawiye-Sabs, Issas, Dir-Gedabursis, Garreh-Ajurans, etc). The Puntland is the land of the Mijurtinis (the region - Bari & Nugal - was first called Migiurtina by Italians = ? Miyurtina in English, Mijourtine in French). Ogadenis are also in Somalia but mainly in the Ogaden (Ethiopia) and also in Kenya.

The only flag of Puntland I have saw is the Somali flag itself but with a paler blue. The logo shown on the page concerns the liberation front of Western Somalia ( = "State of Somali" in Ethiopia = Ogaden). Not like Somaliland, Puntland which official name is actually Republic of "Puntland State of Somalia", has not the aim of independence but of forming a confederation when things improve.

Since things are still not going better and Somalia is still a no-state country, Puntland can be considered actually independent since 1992 (1998 for the declaration of "no secession"...) like other "States" in Hiranland, Jubaland, etc.
Jean-Marc Merklin, 24 Apr 2003

A lighter shade of blue is shown on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puntland for the flag of Puntland - a lighter blue than the Somalia flag.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Flag_of_Somalia_Sky_Blue.svg mentions the last change as being  "Updated flag color to the correct color."
Ben Cahoon, 08 May 2008

On May 25, 2009, the Council of Ministers in Somalia's self-governing State of Puntland voted and approved unanimously the region's new constitution, which
envisions a separate state flag and anthem.  The constitution is open now to debate in the Parliament and will come into effect after the ratification process.

The flag proposals can be seen at http://allidamaale.com/July/FikradaCalankaa.htm and http://yusufcawad.blogspot.com/2009/07/waa-calanka-dowlada-puntland-puntland.html.
Chrystian Kretowicz, 05 Oct 2009

Quoting Mohammed Omar Hussein of the "Somaliweyn Media Center", 13 December 2009:

"The Somali Transitional Federal Government has clearly stated that the semi-autonomous region of Puntland in eastern Somalia has the right to obtain its own Flag.
Madobe Mohammed Nunow, the Minister for Constitution and Federal Affairs of the Somali Transitional Federal government, speaking to one of the local radio stations in Mogadishu, has at length talked about the establishment of a new flag for the semi-autonomous region of Puntland.

“According to the central constitution of the Somali Transitional Federal Government, Puntland has the permission to have its own independent flag, you know the government is Federalism system, and bear in mind it doesn’t mean that by obtaining a new flag Puntland is independent from the rest of Somalia. The Flag of Puntland is the Somali blue Flag which has the white star in the middle” said Madobe, the Somali Constitution Minister".

The Somali President his Excellency Sheikh Shariff Sheikh Ahmed was the first declare that his government will endorse the establishment of a new flag by the semi-autonomous state of Puntland." (Source: http://www.somaliweyn.org/pages/news/Dec_09/14Dec13.html)

However, the decision will probably have very little practical consequence, if any, since the Somali Transitional Federal Government only controls a tiny part of Mogadishu.

Puntland does not claim independence from Somalia. The official website of the Government of Puntland shows the flag and arms of Somalia, as well as photos with the flag.
Ivan Sache, 16 Dec 2009


Flag proposals

 

image by Ivan Sache, 16 Dec 2009

 

"I have seen a flag for Puntland which is different from the former state of Somalia from which it seceded in 1998. The flag is a horizontal tricolour of green - white - red. In the hoist side there is a blue triangle with a white star like the Somalia flag. The flag may also be the same as the Western Somalia Liberation Front.
James Frankcom, 22 Apr 2003

 

The flag proposals can be seen at http://allidamaale.com/July/FikradaCalankaa.htm and http://yusufcawad.blogspot.com/2009/07/waa-calanka-dowlada-puntland-puntland.html.
Chrystian Kretowicz, 05 Oct 2009

 

The first page, dated 30 June 2009, shows seven flags. Since I cannot read the language, there is very little background I can add to the
images the images on http://allidamaale.com/July/FikradaCalankaa.htm, which are shown below:

image by Ivan Sache, 16 Dec 2009

 

Flag horizontally divided light blue-white-light blue (1:2:1) with a tree in the middle.

 

image by Ivan Sache, 16 Dec 2009
 

Flag vertically divided light blue-white-light blue (1:2:1) with a golden star in the middle.  These two flags appear to have been designed by Said Beercade.

image by Ivan Sache, 16 Dec 2009

 

Flag horizontally divided white-light blue with a green vertical stripe and a triangle at hoist, charged with a grey emblem including a white star.  This flag appears to have been contributed by Muhyadin Abdullahi Farah, from Colombus (Ohio, USA).
 

image by Ivan Sache, 16 Dec 2009
 

Flag horizontally divided red-white-black, with a thin green fimbriation between the red and white stripes, a light blue triangle charged with a white star placed along the hoist and a stylized tree in the middle.

image by Ivan Sache, 16 Dec 2009

 

Light blue flag with a large five pointed white star in the middle and a smaller white star in each corner of the flag.

 

image by Ivan Sache, 16 Dec 2009

Light blue flag with a white crescent and star.
 

image by Ivan Sache, 16 Dec 2009
 

Flag vertically divided light blue-green (2:1) with a white crescent and star facing the hoist in the blue stripe.

image by Ivan Sache, 16 Dec 2009
 

The second page shows only one proposal, contributed on 04 July 2009 by Yusuf Cawad.  Flag horizontally divided red-dark blue-black, with a white writing in
the white stripe and a white crescent in the blue stripe, inscribing seven white stars placed 3+1+3.

Ivan Sache, 16 Dec 2009

 

Yusuf Cawad has designed four flag proposals which are shown on his blog.  These are illustrated below:

 

image by Ivan Sache, 28 Dec 2009

Flag vertically divided green-white-blue, with a white writing in the green stripe, a tree in the white stripe, and seven white stars placed 3+1+3 in the blue stripe. Proposal dated 10 July 2009.

 

image by Ivan Sache, 28 Dec 2009

Blue flag with a crescent pointing upwards, encompassing seven white stars placed 3+1+3 and surmounted by white writing, and a white vertical stripe placed along the hoist and charged with a tree. Proposal dated 09 July 2009.

 

image by Ivan Sache, 28 Dec 2009

Flag horizontally divided red-white-black, the black stripe being higher and the red and white stripes being separated by thin horizontal green stripes. The red stripe charged with a white writing, the white stripe charged with a three, and the blue stripe charged seven white stars placed 3+1+3.  Proposal dated 9 July 2009.
 

image by Ivan Sache, 16 Dec 2009


The fourth proposal as shown and described in my previous posting above.
Ivan Sache, 28 Dec 2009

 

The Osmaniya writing could be translated as "Dhula Bunt", which probably means "State of Punt", if one can safely assume the Arabic influence on the Somali language, which I unfortunately cannot speak.

For some reason, one of the stars on the 7-star design is not aligned.  Does anyone know whether it might be intentional and, if yes, what the reason could be?
Thanh-Tâm Lê,  28 Dec 2009