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Abkhazia in the Soviet Union

Abqazskaâ ASSR / Ap̛xazeti ASSR / Ap̧sny ASSR

Last modified: 2014-03-30 by zoltán horváth
Keywords: abkhazia | ssra | ccpa | assra | accpa | apsny | hammer and sickle (yellow) | hammer and sickle (red) | hammer and sickle: solid star |
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Абхазская АССР / აფხაზეთი ასსრ / Аҧсны АССР

Flag of Abkhazia 1935
image by Mark Sensen and António Martins, 10 Oct 2006 | two-sided
See also:

No flag upon foundation (1921-1923)

The Socialist Soviet Republic of Abkhazia was established on 4 March 1921. On 16 December 1921 was established a kind of alliance with the SSR of Georgia (namely an alliance, but in fact Abkhazia was included in Georgia, just Georgia was a member when the Transcaucasian SFSR was established and later when the formation of the USSR).
Antonio Gutiérrez, 07 Jul 2006


Wrong flag reported for 1923-1925

Flag of Abkhazia1923
image by Mark Sensen

As far as I know, no flag was adopted until the first Constitution was proclaimed, on 1 April 1925.
Antonio Gutiérrez, 07 Jul 2006

In 1923 Cyrillic script was used to wrote Abkhazian language, but the Cyrillic alphabet used until 1926 was slightly different to the one adopted in 1954 [and used in the flag above], in which the inscription (even with orthographic mistakes and wrong order of the words) is. Also the word "Autonomous" must not appear on the flag, as was not included in the official name of the republic then. This flag, I’m pretty sure, is absolutely fictitious, and the source, whatever it be, is undoubtedly wrong.
Antonio Gutiérrez, 06 Oct 2006


Flag of 1925-1927

Flag of Abkhazia1925
image by Mark Sensen

The first Constitution was proclaimed on 1 April 1925. The flag was described in article 116 as a red or scarlet cloth with the image in the upper left corner of a sickle and hammer, and above them a five-pointed red star edged in gold, and under them four letters in the Abkhazian language: "S.S.R.A." Proportions 1:2. (see extract of the Constitution of 1925 in Russian language).
Antonio Gutiérrez, 07 Jul 2006

Variant as in postage stamp

Flag of Abkhazia1926
image by Mark Sensen

Although the Constitution establishes that the inscription be under the sickle and hammer, perhaps variants existed with the inscription on the right side of the hammer and sickle. This model was the central motive for a stamp issued by the Republic of Abkhazia in 1999, labeled Flag of the SSR of Abkhazia. Year 1925.
Antonio Gutiérrez, 07 Jul 2006

Framed hammer-and-sickle?

The Constitution says:

»…« обрамленной золотой каймой, под которой внизу четыре буквы на абхазском языке «С.С.Р.А».
This implies some kind of frame or border (каймой) around the hammer and sickle…?
António Martins, 06 Oct 2006

As in other texts describing flags of the other (soviet) republics, the border applies only to the star «красной пятиконечной звезды, обрамленной золотой каймой», i.e., «a red five-pointed star, edged in gold».
Antonio Gutiérrez, 07 Oct 2006

Latin script?

At that time the inscription on the flag, as established in the Constitution, was made in the Abkhazian language, written in Cyrillic script ("ССРА"), but in 1926 a new alphabet based on Latin script was introduced (and replaced in 1928 with another, also based on Latin script). The inscription on the flag, however, seems not to have been changed.
Antonio Gutiérrez, 07 Jul 2006

I’m almost sure that those two latin script orthographies (1926’s and 1928’s) used the same acronym for "Socialist Soviet Republic of Abkhazia": "S.S.R.A.".
António Martins, 06 Oct 2006


Flag of 1927-1931

(no changes)

Flag of Abkhazia1925
image by Mark Sensen

The Constitution, as amended on 7 March 1927, just introduced one change in the article regarding the flag (now numbered 102): the reference to the Abkhazian language in the inscription was deleted. (See text in English and in Russian.)
Antonio Gutiérrez, 07 Jul 2006

In spite of this difference in the legal wording, the flag was not changed, as it legally still reads "ССРА", in cyrillic script. (The preceeding article, about the coat of arms, still mentions inscriptions in Abkhaz, Georgian and Russian.)
António Martins, 06 Oct 2006

The English translation may induce a design error based on description: The Russian version (original?) says:

»…« золотой каймой, под которой внизу четыре буквы »…«
including nothing that might be interpreted as text on a curved path («a golden swath, inscribed four letters», in English translantion). António Martins, 06 Oct 2006

Right, that’s a wrong translation into English. The text must read (also referring to the star, see above) (…) «a golden frame» (…) or (…) «edged in gold» (…).
Antonio Gutiérrez, 07 Oct 2006

Wrong flag reported for 1928

Flag of Abkhazia 1928
image by Mark Sensen

Also wrong. It uses as basis the Georgian flag of 1937 (in 1928!!), the inscriptions include the letter for "autonomous" (SSR until 1931), and finally the alphabet used for the Abkhazian inscriptions is the Cyrillic 1954 one, not the 1928 Latin, as expected.
Antonio Gutiérrez, 07 Oct 2006


Flag of 1935-1937 (or 1931-1937?)

Flag of Abkhazia 1935
image by Mark Sensen and António Martins, 10 Oct 2006

In 1931 the contract of alliance was abolished and Abkhazia was established as autonomous republic of Georgia, and renamed Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic of Abkhazia. In article 84 of the Constitution adopted 7 January 1935 the inscription reads "ASSRA" (see text in English and in Russian). Most probably the Constitution was amended already in 1931, but I’ve found no evidence.
Antonio Gutiérrez, 07 Jul 2006


Flag of 1937-1938

Flag of Abkhazia 1937
image by António Martins, 10 Oct 2006

The 1937 Constitution (adopted 2 August) describes the flag in article 112. The flag is now adapted to the Georgian model, with inscriptions of just the name of the mother republic (Georgian SSR) in three languages: Georgian, Abkhazian and Russian. No reference to the name of the autonomous republic (Abkhazian ASSR) is made on the text. (See text of the Constitution in English and in Russian).
The image of this flag would be with just the three inscriptions (Georgian SSR) and with the Abkhazian inscription made in the Latin alphabet used at that time (and probably in second place, and Russian in the third place, as in the Constitution text?)
Antonio Gutiérrez, 07 Jul 2006


Flag of 1938-1951

Flag of Abkhazia 1938
image by António Martins, 10 Oct 2006

On 1938 the Abkhazian alphabet was again changed, this time based in Georgian script. The Abkhazian inscription in the flag was also probably changed (unfortunately no images of this flag, if existed, are known, at least by me).
Antonio Gutiérrez, 07 Jul 2006

This flag, with corrected Abkhazian inscriptions (this time in the 1938 Georgian script) would be the flag used between 1938 and 1951, but undoubtedly not in 1928.
Antonio Gutiérrez, 06 Oct 2006


Flag of 1951-1978

Flag of Georgian SSR in 1951
image by Željko Heimer

On 1951 the Georgian flag was changed and the Abkhazian flag was changed accordingly, but any local reference was omitted and the flags of Abkhazia and Georgia were the same for almost 30 years.
Antonio Gutiérrez, 07 Jul 2006


Flag of 1978-1991

Flag of Abkhazia 1935
image by Mark Sensen and António Martins, 10 Oct 2006

The new Abkhazian Constitution, adopted 6 June 1978, made a small change to the flag, described in article 160, including the name of the republic under the blue square. According to the text of the Constitution and the Regulations issued on 3 November 1978 and 21 July 1981 with the complete name, not abreviated, i.e., "Аҧсны АССР" ("Ap̧sny ASSR"), not "Аҧ. АССР" ("Ap̧. ASSR"). Transcriptions of these documents are found in the book of V. Sokolov Veksillologicheskii spravochnik po flagam Rossiiskoi Imperii i SSSR (2) [sol02c].
Antonio Gutiérrez, 07 Jul 2006


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